Category: Prison Issues Update
Needle exchange program at ACT Prison (Moore report): website
On the 28th July, the ACT Chief Minister announced the release of the Public Health Association of Australia’s (PHAA) report into implementation of a Needle and Syringe Program in the Alexander Maconochie Centre (AMC). The release of the report entitled ‘Balancing Access and Safety: Meeting the challenge of blood borne viruses in prison’ coincides with World Hepatitis Day.
The Health Directorate is seeking your views on the report and its recommendations ahead of finalising its response. The Health Directorate is now engaged in a six week consultation period which will run from Thursday 28 July 2011 – Thursday 8 September 2011.
Related news and media:
Safety ‘paramount’ in any prison needle exchange (ABC; 14 June)
Jail guard joins push for drug reform (Canberra Times; 14 June)
Jail needle opposition ‘industrial blackmail’ (Canberra Times; 17 June)
Blunt words on sharps (Canberra Times; 18 June)
Prisoners are against needle plan: submission (Canberra Times; 21 June)
100% of prisoners reject NSP says prisoner aid veteran (Canberra Liberals media release; 21 June)
Group says prisoners back needle exchange (Canberra Times; 23 June)
Government responds to burnet report (ACT Government media release; 28 June)
ACT won’t plunge into jail needle program (Canberra Times; 29 June)
Australia’s health care in prisons under fire (Canberra Times; 23 July)
Jail report recommends needle exchange plan (ABC; 28 July)
Jail needle swap ‘needed’ (Canberra Times; 28 July)
Moore report open for further six week consultation (ACT Government media release; 28 July)
Greens welcome Moore report (ACT Greens media release; 28 July)
Prison needle exchange ‘makes sense’ (ABC; 29 July)
Estimating post-release mortality in Australia
Stuart A Kinner, David B Preen, Azar Kariminia, Tony Butler, Jessica Y Andrews, Mark Stoové and Matthew Law. Counting the cost: estimating the number of deaths among recently released prisoners in Australia. MJA 2011; 195 (2): 64-68
Design, participants and setting: Application of crude mortality rates for ex-prisoners (obtained from two independent, state-based record-linkage studies [New South Wales and Western Australia]) to a national estimate of the number and characteristics of people released from prison in 2007–08.
Main outcome measures: Estimated number of deaths among adults released from Australian prisons in 2007–08, within 4 weeks and 1 year of release, classified by age, sex, Indigenous status and cause of death.
Results: It was estimated that among people released from prison in 2007–08, between 449 (95% CI, 380–527) and 472 (95% CI, 438–507) died within 1 year of release. Of these, between 68 (95% CI, 56–82) and 138 (95% CI, 101–183) died within 4 weeks of release. Most of these deaths were not drug-related.
Conclusion: The estimated annual number of deaths among recently released prisoners in Australia is considerably greater than the annual number of deaths in custody, highlighting the extreme vulnerability of this population on return to the community. There is an urgent need to establish a national system for routine monitoring of ex-prisoner mortality and to continue the duty of care beyond the prison walls.
Reports & Publications
Consensus Statement addressing Hepatitis C in Australian Custodial Settings (Hepatitis Australia)
World Drug Report 2011 (UNODC)
More criminal justice data for police.uk (Home Office)
The multi-site adult drug court evaluation (Centre for Court Innovation)
Management of blood-exposure in police officers (UK Department of Health)
News, Media & Resources
Drugs trials needle jailers (Telegraph; 27 June)
Coalition takes action to tackle new and dangerous substances such as Kronic (NSW Government media release; 29 June)
Kronic use ‘rife’ in prisons (West Australian)
Kronic banned from WA jails (PerthNow)
Treatment works, prisons don’t: VAADA call for preventative & cost effective approach to crime (VAADA media release; 20 June)
Prisons rife with drugs (Herald Sun; 17 July)
Prison post-release death rates a sign of policy failure (Moreland Hall news; 19 July)
Alcohol court (ABC; 28 June)
Finance more drug help centres, says police chief (West Australian)
Drug arrests up, but supply stays strong (The Age)
Prison release a deadly sentence (Australian; 15 July)
Alarming number of prisoners die shortly after being released, researchers find (Daily Telegraph; 17 July)
Ex-cons dying upon release (Courier Mail; 18 July)
Decriminalisation an option in an unwinnable war (The Age; 1 July)
Ex-chaplain tells inquiry of drugs in jails (ABC; 20 July)
Tough new cannabis laws as usage soars (ABC; 27 July)
Jail chief demands drug free units (Ireland)
Government launches drug recovery wings to help cut reoffending (UK Ministry of Justice)
Clarke: Plans outlined to reduce reoffending (UK Ministry of Justice)
Prison booze interventions trialled to cut crime (Stuff.co.nz)
Drivers of Crime: Prisoner rehab boost aims to cut reoffending (NZ Government)
Drug courts crucial to criminal justice reform (Washington Post)
Legal high review ‘too little too late’ (NZ Herald)
Alcohol diversion scheme reports (Alcohol Policy UK)
2011 UN Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS misses opportunity to address critical levels of HIV in people who inject drugs (Harm Reduction International)
A real debate about drug policy (Wall Street Journal)
Cambodia’s alarming new drug law (Open Society Foundations)
Florida: Drug laws ruled unconstitutional (NY Times)
Find recent Law, Crime & Justice stories on ABC Radio National here.
Useful links to research and publications:
Corrective Services Australia (ABS)
Prisoners in Australia (ABS)
Report on Government Services 2009 (Productivity Commission)
Corrective Services management and reform (AIC)
Prisoner health and juvenile justice (AIHW)
Research and publications (No Bars)
Standard Guidelines for Corrections in Australia (revised) 2004
Find recent Prisons and Punishment stories from ABC Sydney here.
NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research (BOCSAR)
BOCSAR is the State’s official source of NSW crime statistics. Find the latest BOSCAR crime statistics, criminal court statistics, publications, and media releases from their website here.
Recent BOCSAR media release: NSW Recorded Crime Statistics quarterly update: March 2011 (7 June); Police Arrests and Correctional Workload (4 July); The changing nature of objects stolen in household burglaries (6 July)
Justice Health (NSW Government)
Justice Health provides health care in a complex environment to people in the adult correctional system, to those in courts and police cells, to juvenile detainees and to those within the NSW forensic mental health system and in the community. Find Justice Health publications from the Justice Health website here.
Recent Justice Health publications: 2009 NSW Inmate Health Survey: Key Findings Report; 2009 NSW Inmate Health Survey Aboriginal Report; Young People in Custody Health Survey
The Hepatitis Helpline has had a makeover!
New posters and business cards are now available for the NSW Hepatitis Helpline, NSW Prisons Hepatitis Helpline and Hep Connect. As well as having a fresh new look, the general Helpline posters feature information in community languages about accessing the Helpline through an interpreter.
Find recent Prisons and Punishment stories from ABC Brisbane here.
Find recent Prisons and Punishment stories from ABC Perth here.
Crime Research Centre (CRC)
The CRC at the University of Western Australia publishes annual crime and justice statistics which have enhanced understanding of the extent of the crime problem in the state and trends in criminal justice. Find reports and statistics from the CRC website here.
Find recent Prisons and Punishment stories from ABC Melbourne here.
Find recent Prisons and Punishment stories from ABC Hobart here.
Tasmania Corrective Services. (Department of Justice)
Find the Tasmanian Department of Justice Corrective Services website here.
Find recent Prisons and Punishment stories from ABC Canberra here.
ACT Corrective Services
Find information ACT Corrective services website here.
Find recent Prisons and Punishment stories from ABC Darwin here.
NT Correctional Services (NT Department of Justice)
Find information about Correctional Services in NT from the NT Department of Justice website here.
Bachireddy, C., A. R. Bazazi, et al. "Attitudes toward opioid substitution therapy and pre-incarceration HIV transmission behaviors among HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia: Implications for secondary prevention." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 116(1-3): 151-157.
Background: Pre-incarceration HIV transmission behaviors and current attitudes toward opioid substitution therapy (OST) among HIV-infected male prisoners in Malaysia have important implications for secondary HIV prevention efforts. Methods: In June 2007, 102 HIV-infected male prisoners within 6 months of community-release were anonymously surveyed in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Results: Nearly all subjects (95%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Overall, 66% of participants reported sharing needles, and 37% reported unprotected sex in the 30 days prior to incarceration. During this period, 77% reported injection drug use, with 71% injecting daily and 65% injecting more than one substance. Injection of buprenorphine (28%), benzodiazepines (28%) and methamphetamines (49%) was reported. Nearly all (97%) of those reporting unprotected sex did so with someone not known to be HIV-infected. While 51% believed that opioid substitution therapy COST) would be helpful, only 33% believed they needed it to prevent relapse after prison release. Most participants (70%) expressed interest in learning more about OST. Those reporting the highest injection risks were more likely to believe OST would be helpful (p < 0.05), to believe that it was needed to prevent relapse post-release (p < 0.05), and to express interest in learning more about OST (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Secondary HIV prevention among prisoners in Malaysia is crucial to reduce community HIV transmission after release. Effectively reducing HIV risk associated with opioid injection will require OST expansion, including social marketing to improve its acceptability and careful monitoring. Access to sterile injection equipment, particularly for non-opioid injectors, and behavioral interventions that reduce sexual risk will also be required. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Balabanova, Y., V. Nikolayevskyy, et al. "Survival of Civilian and Prisoner Drug-Sensitive, Multi- and Extensive Drug- Resistant Tuberculosis Cohorts Prospectively Followed in Russia." Plos One 6(6).
Objective and Methods: A long-term observational study was conducted in Samara, Russia to assess the survival and risk factors for death of a cohort of non-multidrug resistant tuberculosis (non-MDRTB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) civilian and prison patients and a civilian extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDRTB) cohort. Results: MDRTB and XDRTB rates of 54.8% and 11.1% were identified in the region. Half (50%) of MDRTB patients and the majority of non-MDRTB patients (71%) were still alive at 5 years. Over half (58%) of the patients died within two years of establishing a diagnosis of XDRTB. In the multivariate analysis, retreatment (HR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.04, 2.49) and MDRTB (HR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.17, 2.39) were significantly associated with death within the non-MDR/MDRTB cohort. The effect of age on survival was relatively small (HR = 1.01, 95% CI 1.00, 1.02). No specific factor affected survival of XDRTB patients although median survival time for HIV-infected versus HIV-negative patients from this group was shorter (185 versus 496 days). The majority of MDRTB and XDRTB strains (84% and 92% respectively) strains belonged to the Beijing family. Mutations in the rpoB (codon 531 in 81/92; 88.8%), katG (mutation S315T in 91/92, 98.9%) and inhA genes accounted for most rifampin and isoniazid resistance respectively, mutations in the QRDR region of gyrA for most fluroquinolone resistance (68/92; 73.5%). Conclusions: Alarmingly high rates of XDRTB exist. Previous TB treatment cycles and MDR were significant risk factors for mortality. XDRTB patients' survival is short especially for HIV-infected patients. Beijing family strains comprise the majority of drug-resistant strains.
Binswanger, I. A., P. J. Blatchford, et al. "Risk factors for all-cause, overdose and early deaths after release from prison in Washington state." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 117(1): 1-6.
Background: High mortality rates after release from prison have been well-documented, particularly from overdose. However, little is known about the risk factors for death after release from prison. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the demographic and incarceration-related risk factors for all-cause, overdose and early mortality after release from prison. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of inmates released from a state prison system from 1999 through 2003. The cohort included 30,237 who had a total of 38,809 releases from prison. Potential risk factors included gender, race/ethnicity, age, length of incarceration, and community supervision. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine risk factors for all-cause, overdose and early (within 30 days of release) death after release from prison. Results: Age over 50 was associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.67 for each decade increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23, 3.20) but not for overdose deaths or early deaths. Latinos were at decreased risk of death compared to Whites only for all-cause mortality (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42, 0.87). Increasing years of incarceration were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91, 0.99) and overdose deaths (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68, 0.95), but not early deaths. Gender and type of release were not significantly associated with all-cause, overdose or early deaths. Conclusions: Age, ethnicity and length of incarceration were associated with mortality after release from prison. Interventions to reduce mortality among former inmates are needed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clifasefi, S. L., S. E. Collins, et al. "AGREEMENT BETWEEN SELF-REPORT AND ARCHIVAL PUBLIC SERVICE UTILIZATION DATA AMONG CHRONICALLY HOMELESS INDIVIDUALS WITH SEVERE ALCOHOL PROBLEMS." Journal of Community Psychology 39(6): 631-644.
Public service utilization data are often used as key outcomes in studies on homelessness. Although self-report data on these outcomes are accessible and cost-effective, various factors may affect retrospective recall in homeless populations. It is therefore necessary to establish validity of self-report to ensure the integrity of studies involving such populations. Participants (N = 134) were chronically homeless individuals with severe alcohol problems who participated in a housing first effectiveness trial (Larimer et al., 2009). The authors compared 30-day and 3-year retrospective self-report data on sobering center, jail, and hospital use with archival records corresponding to the same timeframes. Analyses indicated good category-specific agreement for 30-day self-report and archival data on sobering center (82%; k = .58) and jail use (89%; k = .60). Hospital use, however, was self-reported significantly more frequently than indicated by archival data (78%; k = .30). Three-year data showed inadequate agreement across all three variables. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
de la Hoya, P. S., A. Marco, et al. "Hepatitis C and B prevalence in Spanish prisons." European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 30(7): 857-862.
Purpose The Prevalhep study seeks to determine the prevalence of factors associated with the hepatitis C (HCV) and B (HBV) virus in Spanish prisoners. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional study which randomly selected 18 Spanish prisons to participate, with 21 prisoners per centre. Results There were 378 prisoners selected, 370 of whom had serological HCV and 342 had HBV data. The HCV population was predominantly male (91.6%), middle age (66.7% <= 40 years of age), of Spanish origin (60.5%), with a history of injection drug use (IDU; 23.2%), in prison < 5 years (71.2%) and having entered prison after 2006 (51.9%). The prevalence of HCV was 22.7% (n = 84; 95% CI, 18.3-27.1) and HBV was 2.6% (n = 9; 95% CI, 0.2-4.9%). Of the patients with HCV, 40.5% were co-infected with HIV, 0.3% co-infected with HBV, and 1.5% with triple virus co-infection (HBV + HCV + HIV). The three markers of HB had been measured in 99 inmates: 32.1% had post-vaccination immunity (antiHBS+) and 30.4% contact status with HBV (HBcAb + and/or HBsAg+), while 37.5% were susceptible to HB. Conclusions The prevalence of HBV and HCV has decreased in the Spanish prison population, probably as a result of decrease in IDU transmission, and an increase in immigrant prisoner population that does not have this risk behaviour.
Dyer, C. "Poor treatment of drug addicts in prison costs UK more than 3.5m pound in compensation and fees." British Medical Journal 343.
Huang, Y. F., H. S. Kuo, et al. "Mortality among a cohort of drug users after their release from prison: an evaluation of the effectiveness of a harm reduction program in Taiwan." Addiction 106(8): 1437-1445.
Aims To determine the effect of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) on mortality among injection drug users. Design A cohort of prisoners with a history of injecting opiates who were followed after their release from prison in July 2007. Mortality between July 2007 and December 2008 was determined by linking the National Death Registry with the Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) database. Setting Taiwan. Participants A total of 4357 amnestied prisoners with a history of opiate injection. Measurements The total mortality rates (MR) among the cohort were calculated based on their person-time contribution to methadone attendance and re-incarceration during follow-up. We used survival methods with MMT and re-incarceration as time-varying covariates adjusted for length of follow-up in the community. Results A total of 142 deaths occurred: 13 in the 1st week after release [MR = 13.7/100 person-years (pyrs)], which was greater than that in the next 4 weeks [MR = 3.2/100 pyrs, relative rate (RR) = 4.3, P < 0.001]. Overall, 1982 (46%) subjects enrolled in MMT; however, 1282 of them discontinued MMT after enrolling. Findings The mortality among those who continued in MMT attendance was lower (MR = 0.24/100 pyrs) than those who never enrolled in MMT (MR = 2.6/100 pyrs) or those who enrolled but dropped out of MMT (MR = 7.0/100 pyrs) after adjusting for age, gender and human immunodeficiency virus status at amnesty (RR = 0.07). Conclusions In ex-prisoners in Taiwan with a history of opiate injecting, enrollment and continued participation in methadone maintenance treatment is associated with substantially lower mortality.
Jung, H. "Increase in the Length of Incarceration and the Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Men Released from Illinois State Prisons." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 30(3): 499-U150.
The sharp rise in U.S. incarceration rates has heightened long-standing concerns among scholars and policymakers that lengthy incarceration permanently harms the future labor market outcomes of prisoners. If true, then lengthy prison sentences will not only punish criminals for crimes committed, but will also make it far more difficult for ex-prisoners to reenter society as productive citizens. To investigate this claim I examine how increase in duration of incarceration affects subsequent earnings and employment. Comparing long-serving prisoners with short-serving ones in the Illinois state prison system, I find that the length of incarceration is positively associated with earnings and employment, even though these effects attenuate over time. The positive effects are stronger for individuals convicted of economically motivated and less violent crimes (such as property-and drug-related offenses) than for those convicted of violent crimes (such as person-related offenses). The effect is also stronger for prison entrants with self-reported drug addiction problems. The deterrent effect of lengthy incarceration and rehabilitation during incarceration are possible reasons for this positive effect. However, because this paper analyzes men who served less than four years in Illinois prison and excludes the population of men who served their terms exclusively in jail, readers should be cautious about generalizing findings of this paper. (C) 2011 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.
Kirwan, P., B. Evans, et al. "Hepatitis C and B testing in English prisons is low but increasing." Journal of Public Health 33(2): 197-204.
Background Prisons are important settings for blood-borne virus control because of the high prevalence of hepatitis C and B viral infections (HCV and HBV), and behaviours associated with transmission among prisoners. Methods Data from sentinel laboratories in England were used to identify testing for hepatitis C (anti-HCV) and hepatitis B [hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc)] among male and female prisoners between 2005 and 2008. Results Between 2005 and 2008, 10 723 prisoners from 39 prisons in England were tested for anti-HCV, anti-HBc and/or HBsAg. Overall, 24.2 prisoners tested positive for anti-HCV. Anti-HCV testing increased 47 over 4 years (P 0.001), whilst the proportion testing positive decreased significantly from 26 in 2005 to 23 in 2008 ((2) 10.0, df 3, P 0.030). In total, 13.9 people tested positive for anti-HBc. Of 5151 people tested for anti-HBc, 4433 were also tested for HBsAg; of these 2.4 were HBsAg positive. HBsAg testing increased 35 between 2005 and 2008, with no significant change in the proportion testing positive. Between 2005 and 2008, 2.4 (CI: 2.322.43) of the prison population (24 prisons) were estimated to have been tested for anti-HCV. Conclusions Although hepatitis testing has increased, only a small proportion of the prison population were tested. More testing is required to identify infected prisoners and refer them for appropriate treatment.
Marrone, G. F., D. M. Shakleya, et al. "Relative performance of common biochemical indicators in detecting cigarette smoking." Addiction 106(7): 1325-1334.
Aims Many cities have banned indoor smoking in public places. Thus, an updated recommendation for a breath carbon monoxide (CO) cut-off is needed that optimally determines smoking status. We evaluated and compared the performance of breath CO and semiquantitative cotinine immunoassay test strips (urine and saliva NicAlert (R)) alone and in combination. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Urban drug addiction research and treatment facility. Participants Ninety non-treatment-seeking smokers and 82 non-smokers. Measurements Participants completed smoking histories and provided breath CO, urine and saliva specimens. Urine and saliva specimens were assayed for cotinine by NicAlert (R) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Findings An optimal breath CO cut-off was established using self-report and LCMSMS analysis of cotinine, an objective indicator, as reference measures. Performance of smoking indicators and combinations were compared to the reference measures. Breath CO >= 5 parts per million (p.p.m.) optimally discriminated smokers from non-smokers. Saliva NicAlert (R) performance was less effective than the other indicators. Conclusions In surveys of smokers and non-smokers in areas with strong smoke-free laws, the breath carbon monoxide cut-off that discriminates most effectively appears to be >= 5 p.p.m. rather than the >= 10 p.p.m. cut-off often used. These findings may not generalize to clinical trials, regions with different carbon monoxide pollution levels or areas with less stringent smoke-free laws.
Santos, B. F. D., N. O. de Santana, et al. "Prevalence, genotypes and factors associated with HCV infection among prisoners in Northeastern Brazil." World Journal of Gastroenterology 17(25): 3027-3034.
AIM: To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence and its genotypes, and to identify the factors associated with HCV infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, conducted in two prisons (one male and one female) in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, comprised 422 subjects. All of the prisoners underwent a rapid test for the detection of HCV antibodies. Patients with a positive result were tested for anti-HCV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and for HCV RNA by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The virus genotype was defined in every serum sample that presented positive for PCR-HCV. In order to determine the factors independently associated with positive serology for HCV, multivariate logistic regression was used. RESULTS: HCV seroprevalence was 3.1%. Of the 13 subjects with positive anti-HCV, 11 had viremia confirmed by PCR. Of these, 90.9% had genotype 1. A total of 43 (10.2%) were injecting drug users, and HCV seroprevalence in this subgroup was 20.6%. The variable most strongly associated with positive serology for HCV was use of injecting drugs [odds ratio (OR), 23.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.0-90.8]. Age over 30 years (OR, 5.5; 95%CI, 1.1-29.2), history of syphilis (OR, 9.8; 95%CI, 1.7-55.2) and history of household contact with HCV positive individual (OR, 14.1; 95%CI, 2.3-85.4) were also independently associated with HCV infection. CONCLUSION: Most of the HCV transmissions result from parenteral exposure. However, there is evidence to suggest a role for sex and household contact with an infected subject in virus transmission. (C) 2011 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
Sosman, J., R. MacGowan, et al. "Sexually Transmitted Infections and Hepatitis in Men With a History of Incarceration." Sexually Transmitted Diseases 38(7): 634-639.
Background: Men entering correctional facilities have high rates of human immunodeficiency virus, sexually transmitted infections (STI), and hepatitis. Many prisons offer screening, treatment, and vaccination services; however, little is known about the rates of these infections in men after release to the community. Methods: Young men were recruited from prisons in Mississippi, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin as part of a human immunodeficiency virus/STI/hepatitis intervention study. Participants were offered screening for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC), Chlamydia trachomatis, trichomoniasis, syphilis, hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) 6 months after release. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations with prevalent infections. Results: Of 248 eligible men, 178 (71.8%) participated. Their mean age was 22.5 years, and 92% reported multiple lifetime incarcerations. At 6-month postrelease, 79% reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex, and 26% tested positive for 1 or more infections (GC, 1%; C. trachomatis, 12%; trichomoniasis, 8%; syphilis, 0%; HCV, 6%; HBV, 1%). Of all, 55% were susceptible to HBV infection. Active STI (GC, C. trachomatis, or trichomoniasis) was associated with less education (odds ratios [ OR], 2.25; P < 0.05). HCV infection was associated with injection drug use (OR, 69.70; P < 0.05) and being white (OR, 7.54; P < 0.05). HBV susceptibility was associated with older age (OR, 3.02; P < 0.05), more education (OR, 2.39; P < 0.05), or incarceration in Mississippi (OR, 6.69; P < 0.05) or Rhode Island (OR, 2.84; P < 0.05). Conclusions: Effective screening and prevention programs are needed for this population before and after release from custody to prevent acquisition and further transmission of these infections.
Voas, R. B., R. L. DuPont, et al. "Towards a national model for managing impaired driving offenders." Addiction 106(7): 1221-1227.
Aims To describe a proposed national model for controlling the risk presented by offenders convicted of driving while impaired (DWI) and promoting behavioral change to reduce future recidivism. Setting Traditional methods of controlling the risk they present to the driving public are not adequate, as indicated by the fact that approximately 1000 people are killed each year-in alcohol-related crashes involving drivers convicted of DWI in the previous three years. However, stimulated by the success of special drug courts for substance abusers and new technological methods for monitoring drug and alcohol use, new criminal justice programs for managing impaired driving offenders are emerging. Intervention A national model for a comprehensive system applicable to both drug and alcohol impaired drivers is proposed. The program focuses on monitoring offender drinking or the offender driving employing vehicle interlocks with swift, sure but moderate penalties for non-compliance in which the ultimate sanction is based on offender performance in meeting monitoring requirements. Findings Several new court programs, such as the 24/7 Sobriety Project in South Dakota and North Dakota and the Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) Project, which feature alcohol/drug consumption monitoring, have produced evidence that indicates even dependent drinkers can conform to abstinence monitoring requirements and avoid the short-term jail consequence for failure. Conclusions Based on the apparent success of emerging court monitoring systems, it appears that the cost of incarcerating driving-while-impaired offenders can be minimized by employing low-cost community correction programs paid for by the offender.
Williams, B. A., R. L. Sudore, et al. "Balancing Punishment and Compassion for Seriously III Prisoners." Annals of Internal Medicine 155(2): 122-U111.
Compassionate release is a program that allows some eligible, seriously ill prisoners to die outside of prison before sentence completion. It became a matter of federal statute in 1984 and has been adopted by most U. S. prison jurisdictions. Incarceration is justified on 4 principles: retribution, rehabilitation, deterrence, and incapacitation. Compassionate release derives from the theory that changes in health status may affect these principles and thus alter justification for incarceration and sentence completion. The medical profession is intricately involved in this process because eligibility for consideration for compassionate release is generally based on medical evidence. Many policy experts are calling for broader use of compassionate release because of many factors, such as an aging prison population, overcrowding, the increasing deaths in custody, and the soaring medical costs of the criminal justice system. Even so, the medical eligibility criteria of many compassionate-release guidelines-which often assume a definitive prognosis-are clinically flawed, and procedural barriers may further limit their rational application. We propose changes to address these flaws.
Zybert, E. B. "Prison Libraries in Poland: Partners in Rehabilitation, Culture, and Education." Library Trends 59(3): 409-426.
This article describes the rehabilitation programs of the Polish Prison Service, which incorporate various types of cultural, educational, and library activities. The main focus is on the author's analysis of rehabilitation programs in existence between 1981 and the present. The changes in the laws that govern these activities are described, as well as how the organization of the Polish prison system and the current sentence structure determine how rehabilitation programs are provided in the correctional institutions. The goals and objectives of prison libraries are explored, as they relate to the rehabilitation process and activities. The library, collections and access to library materials are discussed, as well as library premises and library staffing. The author's research data form the basis for the analysis of prison library development over the last thirty years. The article also discusses various innovative rehabilitation programs that have been implemented under the theme of "education through culture and art." These include, among others, cultural and educational programs to help substance abusers overcome their addition anti readjust to society, assertiveness training, and participation in cultural activities. These programs are also designed to enhance the offenders' literacy, skills and to encourage their creativity and potential talent in music and line arts. Finally, the article describes prison theater activities, literary, clubs, and activities that promote reading (e.g., book exhibits, author talks, and the reading of books over the prison broadcasting system).
The PIU provides information sourced from the ANCDs regular media and policy monitoring activities and information services provided by external organisations. The PIU recognises and thanks: DrugScope; ADCA; Beyond Bars; DrugInfo; ATODA; and Corrections Victoria for their contributions to this edition.